One of the most important variables in electoral research is competitiveness. It is assumed to be a necessary precondition for a healthy democracy. Electoral competitiveness is linked to various aspects of electoral democracy: it connects to the nature and dynamics of campaigns, media coverage, party systems and strategies, voter efficacy, political engagement and turnout, general voting behaviour and eventually political legitimacy. As electoral behaviour is structured by the respective context (e.g. electoral system, party system, campaigns, media, etc.), research on electoral competition has to follow a comprehensive approach to elections. Although there is a long tradition of studying electoral competition in political science, most have approached the question from a single case approach. Less attention has been paid to examining how electoral competition affects individual level behaviour across electoral systems and in different contexts. Fortunately, there have been many advances in the study of cross-national electoral data. Not only are there more and more studies all over the world, there are also coordinated efforts of harmonization (for example, CSES) and an increasing number of multi-component election studies (for example, PIREDEU). Both developments can help to make substantive progress in the measurement and analysis of electoral competition. We seek a set of papers that addresses substantive questions in comparative electoral research with a direct focus on electoral competition, its measurement and its impact. Beyond that, we are also interested in more technical and methodological papers on the promises and pitfalls of comparative surveys and multi-component election studies.