This workshop will study the quality of democracy in Europe, focusing on issue congruence and political responsiveness across countries, levels of governance, policy areas and time, both at the national and the European levels. Two questions have come to the fore in recent studies regarding political representation. One relates to issue congruence – how close a match there is between the wishes of voters and the policies enacted by governments? The other question relates to political responsiveness – the extent to which changes in political demands lead to changes in policy outputs, which has hardly been addressed at the European level. Here, existing research has mainly concerned itself with national government policy-making and representation, especially in Anglo-American democracies. There is much need for additional studies that focus on continental European countries and the European Union itself. Moreover there has been virtually no discussion of the interplay between representation at the European and national levels within the EU. What is needed is a systematic examination of how issue congruence is linked to political responsiveness across countries, levels of governance, policy areas and time. By bringing together scholars from diverse research communities, this workshop would provide a unique opportunity for a critical discussion of these themes in terms of theoretical approaches, data availability, and methodological techniques.