Direct democratic instruments such as referendums and initiatives as well as new "Dialogical deliberative instruments” such as participatory budgeting, mini publics, consensus conferences etc. are en vogue in a number of countries. Both democratic channels are seen as an innovation and addition for mainstream traditional representative democracies. Are these instruments enhancing legitimacy and are they able to channel growing political protest. Direct and deliberative participatory instruments rely on electronic democracy and both use a mix out of online and online engagement (blended democracy). The idea is to bridge these two fields of direct and deliberative democracy research (hybrid democracy). Its combination is rare (see e.g. British Colombia). Is it useful to combine dialogical and direct democracy? If yes, how can dialogical democratic instruments and instruments of direct democracy (Initiatives and Referendums) be combined. Do type, sequence and timing matter? How can this be institutionalised? Who are relevant actors supporting these instruments?