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The European Union and Beyond

A Multi-level Approach of the Impact of Inequality on Political Cleavages in the ‘New’ Europe

Paul Pennings
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Paul Pennings
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

The research analyses the impact of inequality on political cleavages by a using a multi-level design that combines the three levels of parties (established vs. wing), countries (established vs. upcoming welfare states) and voters (insiders vs. outsiders). It will be shown that the interaction between these three levels explains the variety of cleavage structures in the ‘New’ Europe.
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