Towards a taxonomy of pacifism
This paper aims to work towards a definitive taxonomy of pacifism. A debate that, still, seems not to have closed completely. The embryo of the research is part of the Phd research defended in 2015 and was entitled "The political theory of pacifist thought: theoretical debate and axiological positioning". A research based on concepts and authors; in other words, textualism and contextualism.
As a first premise to take into account, pacifism I assume pacifism as one of the traditions of thought involved in to the "war-and-peace debate" (Caedel, 1988). An axis of discussion that can be interpreted as a "moral continuum" (Cady, 2010). Specifically, pacifism is located at one of the extremes, in a moral position opposed to militarism or warrism (Teichman, 1986). Between both extremes it will be necessary to place, in a gradual, orderly and argued way, theoretical positions such as the just war theory, the heritage of public international law or the cosmopolitanism moral framework. Leaving aside political realism (realpolitik), since it is a theoretical proposal that does not subject war to moral analysis.
From this theoretical starting point, the paper systematizes, analyzes and discusses the main approaches already made to the concept of pacifism. Included here, for example, the works of Max Scheler (1953), Raymond Aron (1963), Peter Brock (1972), Norberto Bobbio (1982), Alfonso Ruiz Miguel (1989), Ernest Tungendhat (1990), Robert J. Burrowes (1996), Robert L. Holmes and Barry L. Gan (2005). References from various academic approaches, and made at different historical moments, which demonstrate an academic interest in defining and classifying the different variants of pacifism. A debate that supposes the main object of study of the investigation. An object of study that is intended to be addressed from the current academic approach, with the purpose of providing a global understanding, an updated argumentation and a conceptual operationalization.
In conclusion, the proposal aims to review, update and systematize a definitive taxonomy of pacifism, through "back to basics" with a vocation for the future), linked with the new research agenda around pacifism, as the workshop proposes.
Aron, Raymond (1963). Paz y guerra entre las naciones. Madrid: Revista de Occidente.
Bobbio, Norberto (1992). El problema de la guerra y las vías de la paz. Barcelona: Gedisa.
Brock, Peter (1972). Pacifism in Europe to 1914. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Burrowes, Robert J. (1996). The strategy of nonviolence defense: a gandhian approach. New York: State University of New York.
Cady, Duane (2010). From warrism to pacifism. Philadelphia: Tempel University Press.
Caedel, Martin (1988). Thinking about peace and war. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holmes, Robert L. & Gan, Barry L. (2005). Nonviolence in theory and practice. Illinois: Waveland Press.
Ruiz Miguel, Alfonso (1988). La justicia de la guerra y de la paz. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Constitucionales.
Scheler, Max (1953). L’ideé de paix et le pacifism. Paris: Aubier.
Teichman, Jenny (1986). Pacifism and the just war. Oxford: Basil Brackwell.
Tungendhat, Ernst (1990). “Formas de pacifismo” in Cuaderno Gris. Madrid: Instituto de filosofía.